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Cavernous malformation hemorrhage due to trans-mural pressure alterations after cerebrospinal fluid diversion: a case report.

TitleCavernous malformation hemorrhage due to trans-mural pressure alterations after cerebrospinal fluid diversion: a case report.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsHartley BR, Birnbaum C, Hoffman CE
JournalBMC Neurol
Volume20
Issue1
Pagination131
Date Published2020 Apr 13
ISSN1471-2377
KeywordsAged, Cerebral Hemorrhage, Humans, Male, Risk Factors, Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Cavernous malformations are rare cerebral pseudo-vascular lesions with annualized bleeding rates of 0.5-3% in most studies. Of the various explored risk factors for bleeding to date, only prior hemorrhage has shown significant correlation.

CASE PRESENTATION: In this case, we describe a 65-year old man with a peri-ventricular atrial cavernous malformation that hemorrhaged after CSF diversion via ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Serial imaging showed that bleeding continued until the shunt was revised with a programmable valve set at maximum resistance with the addition of a gravitational unit, thereby lowering the trans-mural pressure differential across the cavernous malformation.

CONCLUSIONS: Given that other vascular lesions are subject to hemorrhage from alterations in trans-mural pressure dynamics, we hypothesize that cavernous malformations are similarly affected by trans-mural pressure gradients as they are composed of primitive vascular elements. This hypothesis is corroborated by the temporal correlation of interventions, imaging, and exam findings in the present case, and suggests a potentially important risk factor for hemorrhage in CM patients that affects prognostication and management.

DOI10.1186/s12883-020-01714-3
Alternate JournalBMC Neurol
PubMed ID32284039
PubMed Central IDPMC7153234