Complications in craniosynostosis surgery in patients with rickets: illustrative case and systematic review of literature.

TitleComplications in craniosynostosis surgery in patients with rickets: illustrative case and systematic review of literature.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsLaValley MN, Zappi K, Guadix SWesley, Giantini-Larsen AM, Garton ALA, Heier LA, Imahiyerobo TA, Hoffman CE
JournalJ Neurosurg Case Lessons
Date Published2022 Dec 19

BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis (CSS) is the premature fusion of calvarial sutures associated with identified genetic mutations or secondary to alterations in intracranial pressure, brain, or bone growth patterns. Of the metabolic etiologies implicated in CSS, X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLHR) is the most common, with dysfunctional bone mineralization leading to progressive hyperostosis and delayed synostosis. There is a paucity of literature discussing the unique surgical considerations for XLHR-related CSS.

OBSERVATIONS: A 26-month-old male with XLHR-related sagittal CSS underwent cranial vault remodeling (CVR). Surgery was complicated by the presence of diploic hypertrophy with significant intraoperative estimated blood loss (EBL). EBL greatly exceeded reference ranges for CVR in all-cause CSS. As a result, the surgical goals were modified and the complete planned procedure aborted. Subsequent review of preoperative imaging revealed multiple fine vascular lacunae within the bone. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify reported complications relating to surgical intervention for rickets-associated CSS.

LESSONS: Future considerations for patients with XLHR-related CSS should emphasize awareness of metabolic risk factors with associated complications, and the need for selection of approach and operative management techniques to avoid EBL. Further research is required to elucidate underlying mechanisms and determine whether the encountered phenomenon is characteristic across this patient population and potentially minimized by preoperative medical therapy.

Alternate JournalJ Neurosurg Case Lessons
PubMed ID36536525
PubMed Central IDPMC9764373