|Title||Multimodality intraoperative neuromonitoring in extreme lateral interbody fusion. Transcranial electrical stimulation as indispensable rearview.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Berends HI, Journée HL, Rácz I, van Loon J, Härtl R, Spruit M|
|Journal||Eur Spine J|
|Date Published||2016 05|
|Keywords||Electromyography, Evoked Potentials, Motor, Female, Humans, Intraoperative Complications, Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring, Lumbar Vertebrae, Male, Middle Aged, Peripheral Nerve Injuries, Scoliosis, Spinal Fusion, Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation|
PURPOSE: To optimize intraoperative neuromonitoring during extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) by adding transcranial electrical stimulation with motor evoked potential (TESMEP) to previously described monitoring using spontaneous EMG (sEMG) and peripheral stimulation (triggered EMG: tEMG).
METHODS: Twenty-three patients with degenerative lumbar scoliosis had XLIF procedures and were monitored using sEMG, tEMG and TESMEP. Spontaneous and triggered muscle activity, and the MEP of 5 ipsilateral leg muscles, 2 contralateral leg muscles and 1 arm muscle were monitored.
RESULTS: During XLIF surgery decreased MEP amplitudes were measured in 9 patients and in 6 patients sEMG was documented. In 4 patients, both events were described. In 30 % of the cases (n = 7), the MEP amplitude decreased immediately after breaking of the table and even before skin incision. After reduction of the table break, the MEP amplitudes recovered to baseline. In two patients, the MEP amplitude deteriorated during distraction of the psoas with the retractor, while no events were reported using sEMG and tEMG. Repositioning of the retractor led to recovery of the MEP.
CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring the complete nervous system during an XLIF procedure is found to be helpful since nerve roots, lumbar plexus as well as the intradural neural structures may be at risk. TESMEP has additional value to sEMG and tEMG during XLIF procedure: (1) it informed about otherwise unnoticed events, and (2) it confirmed and added information to events measured using sEMG.
|Alternate Journal||Eur Spine J|