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Primary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Thoracic Spine: A Pediatric Case Report.

TitlePrimary Aneurysmal Bone Cyst of the Thoracic Spine: A Pediatric Case Report.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2020
AuthorsNisson PL, Link TW, Carnevale J, Virk MS, Greenfield JP
JournalWorld Neurosurg
Volume134
Pagination408-414
Date Published2020 Feb
ISSN1878-8769
KeywordsAdolescent, Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal, Decompression, Surgical, Female, Humans, Paraplegia, Spinal Cord Compression, Spinal Diseases, Thoracic Vertebrae
Abstract

BACKGROUND: To date, only a few documented cases exist of complete or near-complete paraplegia of the lower extremities following collapse of a vertebral body secondary to an aneurysmal bone cyst. We describe the preceding symptoms associated with this catastrophic event along with surgical management and recovery.

CASE DESCRIPTION: A previously healthy, 13-year-old girl had experienced months of ongoing back pain with associated posture change. After collapsing at home in the bathroom, she was brought in by emergency medical services and presented to the neurosurgery service with an American Spinal Injury Association A spinal cord injury. Imaging revealed a collapsed T4 vertebral body including expanded and fluid-filled posterior elements and severe kyphotic spine angulation resulting in cord compression corresponding to her sensory and motor deficits. She underwent emergent surgery for spinal cord decompression with a T2-T4 laminectomy, transpedicular tumor resection, and T1-7 instrumented fusion. The patient tolerated the procedure well postoperatively. At 9 months after the event, she is ambulating independently without the use of crutches or a cane and has regained full strength for all muscle groups of her lower extremities.

CONCLUSIONS: The unique combination of back pain and posture change symptoms in an otherwise healthy pediatric patient should heighten clinical suspicion for a possible aneurysmal bone cyst of the spine when formulating a differential diagnosis. Additionally, despite the clinical severity at presentation, patients may still experience significant recovery following expeditious surgical intervention.

DOI10.1016/j.wneu.2019.10.151
Alternate JournalWorld Neurosurg
PubMed ID31678311