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Sensitivity and specificity of intrathecal fluorescein and white light excitation for detecting intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak in endoscopic skull base surgery: a prospective study.

TitleSensitivity and specificity of intrathecal fluorescein and white light excitation for detecting intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak in endoscopic skull base surgery: a prospective study.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsRaza SM, Banu MA, Donaldson A, Patel KS, Anand VK, Schwartz TH
JournalJ Neurosurg
Volume124
Issue3
Pagination621-6
Date Published2016 Mar
ISSN1933-0693
KeywordsBrain Diseases, Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak, Female, Fluorescein, Fluorescent Dyes, Humans, Injections, Spinal, Intraoperative Complications, Male, Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery, Prospective Studies, Sensitivity and Specificity, Skull Base
Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The intraoperative detection of CSF leaks during endonasal endoscopic skull base surgery is critical to preventing postoperative CSF leaks. Intrathecal fluorescein (ITF) has been used at varying doses to aid in the detection of intraoperative CSF leaks. However, the sensitivity and specificity of ITF at certain dosages is unknown.

METHODS: A prospective database of all endoscopic endonasal procedures was reviewed. All patients received 25 mg ITF diluted in 10 ml CSF and were pretreated with dexamethasone and Benadryl. Immediately after surgery, the operating surgeon prospectively noted if there was an intraoperative CSF leak and fluorescein was identified. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power of ITF for detecting intraoperative CSF leak were calculated. Factors correlating with postoperative CSF leak were determined.

RESULTS: Of 419 patients, 35.8% of patients did not show a CSF leak. Fluorescein-tinted CSF (true positive) was noted in 59.7% of patients and 0 false positives were encountered. CSF without fluorescein staining (false negative) was noted in 4.5% of patients. The sensitivity and specificity of ITF were 92.9% and 100%, respectively. The negative and positive predictive values were 88.8% and 100%, respectively. Postoperative CSF leaks only occurred in true positives at a rate of 2.8%.

CONCLUSIONS: ITF is extremely specific and very sensitive for detecting intraoperative CSF leaks. Although false negatives can occur, these patients do not appear to be at risk for postoperative CSF leak. The use of ITF may help surgeons prevent postoperative CSF leaks by intraoperatively detecting and confirming a watertight repair.

DOI10.3171/2014.12.JNS14995
Alternate JournalJ Neurosurg
PubMed ID26295912