|Title||Transorbital endoscopic approach for exposure of the sylvian fissure, middle cerebral artery and crural cistern: an anatomical study.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Almeida JPaulo, Ruiz-Treviño AS, Shetty SR, Omay SB, Anand VK, Schwartz TH|
|Journal||Acta Neurochir (Wien)|
|Date Published||2017 10|
|Keywords||Cerebral Cortex, Decompression, Surgical, Dura Mater, Humans, Middle Cerebral Artery, Natural Orifice Endoscopic Surgery, Neurosurgical Procedures, Orbit, Skull Base|
BACKGROUND: The availability of minimal access instrumentation and endoscopic visualization has revolutionized the field of minimally invasive skull base surgery. The transorbital endoscopic approach using an eyelid incision has been proposed as a new minimally invasive technique for the treatment of skull base pathology, mostly extradural tumors. Our study aims to evaluate the anatomical aspects and potential role of the transorbital endoscopic approach for exposure of the sylvian fissure, middle cerebral artery and crural cistern.
METHODS: An anatomical dissection was performed in four freshly injected cadaver heads (8 orbits) using 0- and 30-degree endoscopes. First, an endoscopic endonasal medial orbital decompression was done to facilitate medial retraction of the orbit. An endoscopic transorbital approach through an eyelid incision, with drilling of the posterior wall of the orbit and lesser sphenoidal wing, was then performed to expose the sylvian fissure and crural cisterns. A stepwise anatomical description of the approach and visualized anatomy is detailed.
RESULTS: A superior eyelid incision followed by orbital retraction provided a surgical window of approximately 1.2 cm (range 1.0-1.5 cm) for endoscopic transorbital dissection. The superior (SOF) and inferior (IOF) orbital fissures represent the medial limits of the approach and are identified in the initial part of the procedure. Drilling of the orbital roof (lateral and superior to the SOF), greater sphenoidal wing (lateral to the SOF and IOF) and lesser sphenoidal wing exposed the anterior and middle fossa dura. A square-shaped dural opening provided visualization of the posterior orbital gyri, sylvian fissure and temporal pole. Intradural dissection allowed exposure of the sphenoidal portion of the sylvian fissure, M1, MCA bifurcation and M2 branches and lenticulostriate perforators. Dissection of the medial aspect of the sylvian and carotid cisterns with a 30-degree endoscope allowed exposure of the mesial temporal lobe and crural cistern.
CONCLUSIONS: The transorbital endoscopic approach allows successful exposure of the sphenoidal portion of the sylvian fissure and M1 and M2 segments of the middle cerebral artery. Angled endoscopes may provide visualization of the mesial temporal lobe and crural cistern. Although our anatomical study demonstrates the feasibility of intradural dissection and closure via an endoscopic transorbital approach, further studies are necessary to evaluate its role in the clinical scenario.
|Alternate Journal||Acta Neurochir (Wien)|